The Input devices of computer systems are electromagnetic devices which acknowledge information and accept data or set of instruction from outside the world and translate this data into machine meaningful and readable form. Computer Input devices acts as a medium of communication and correspondence between computer and the outside world.
With the help and assistance of these devices user can enter the data,and later the data can be store in computer memory for further additional processing and preparing. After the processing and handling are finished the desired and converted outcome can be obtained with the help and assistance of output devices of computers. Keyboard and mouse are the general examples of input devices of computer system,there are several more devices which are used for input, with the use of these devices user are able to enter text, images, audio etc.
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Types of Input Devices of Computer System
There are several types of input devices which can be further categorized. List of these devices are mentioned below ::
- Optical Card Reader (OCR)
- Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
- Optical Bar Code Reader (OBR)
- Voice Recognition Devices
- Optical Mark Reader (OMR)
Keyboards are generally used for entering data to computer system.This is the most used and famous input device in the computer world.
Mainly Three types of keyboards are available in the market ::
- Ps2 Keyboard
- USB Keyboard
- Wireless Keyboard
The PC keyboard looks similar to the old typewriters but there are various keys to perform various task such as there are numeric keys to enter numeric values, alphabetic keys for entering characters, special keys for entering special symbols such as #,$,@ etc, multimedia keys for audio and video players.
The standard keyboard has 101 keys but as the continues development of computer technology, we can purchase a keyboard with 102 till 124 keys keyboards for special purposes. not Only in English keyboard can be obtained with various other languages.
Functions keys ::
These are the keys which are named as F1 To F12 .which can be found at the top of every keyboard, the keys are for special use, their uses can defer from one software to other which entirely Depends upon the software developer or programmer.
For example, F1 key (Help key) is used to find help on any given topic, In windows, this keys is used commonly for getting some extra information or just to describe the topic further.Alt+F4 these combination keys are used for closing any application or program which is actively running on computer system.F2 is used for renaming any file or folder.Functions keys are best used when they are combined with any other keys defined for specific purposes.
Alphanumeric Keys ::
These keys have digits which ranges from 0 to 9, and when they are used by pressing SHIFT users can type special keys such as @ # $ % & * etc . This section is used while typing text with digits and special symbols, users can also type in Capitals when CAPSLOCK key is on.
Numeric Keypad :: Numeric keypad allows users to enter numeric values from 0 to 9 when NUMLOCK is ON. This is used when user have to rapidly enter numeric values for calculations. If NUMLOCK is off the numeric pad is not active.
Arrow keys :: There are four keys which points us with direction Up-Down Right –Left , These keys are used for moving the cursor in any said four directions.
CAPSLOCK :: When caps lock key is ON user can type the text in capitals. When the key is off user can type the text in small case.
SHIFT :: Shift key when pressed user can type with capital letters and also special characters such as @ # $ % ^ & can be typed while key is pressed.
CTRL :: CTRL key is used as combination key . CTRL+C is used for copying any documents or folders CTRL +V is used to paste the document to any other location. CTRL+S is used for saving document in almost every software or application.
ALT :: ALT key can be used as a combination with F4.when ALT+ F4 pressed it closes active program or application running on the computer. There are 2 ALT keys on keyboard which are used for same purpose.
SPACEBAR :: The spacebar is used to insert space between two words or sentences.
ENTER :: In many software or application this key is used to tell the application to execute the instructions. In MS –Word it is used for entering a paragraph.
BACKSPACE :: Generally backspace is used to delete the last character of the text in many applications such as ms-word ,it is also used to to move the cursor to 1 position to the left.
DEL :: Delete key is used to delete any file or folder or document when selected.
HOME :: When HOME key pressed it sends the cursors to the beginning of the page.
END :: It is used to move the cursor to the end of the line.
PAGE UP :: Used to Display previous page on the screen. For example in Powerpoint presentation PAGE UP key is used to toogle between the presentation.
PAGEDOWN :: used to display next page on the screen.
ESC :: In many application this ESCAPE key is used to terminate the program or cancel any running command.
PAUSE | BREAK :: This keyboard key is used for pausing any action performing on the monitor screen.
PRINTSCREEN :: This key is used for taking picture of any content whether it be a text or image and later with modification it can be provided for printers for outputs.
WINDOWS KEY :: This key is used for displaying start menu.
MENU KEY:: Menu key is used for Right click inside almost applications.
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MOUSE:: MOUSE is a pointing device , pointing device is the interface where users have an extra edge over keyboard where they can point to a certain position on the screen, click and drag icons files and folders from one place to another. The mouse is famous and most used input device commonly it has 2 buttons one on right side second one left side of the mouse.In between the 2 buttons, there is a wheel which is used for scrolling.
Mouse is utilized fundamentally in the application or projects or work with GUI Technology (Graphical User Interface)
The mouse is exceptionally modest, cheap and very simple to use, its navigation and the cursor moving rate is substantially speedier than that of computer Keyboard. Clients can without much of a stretch drag, select any documents, records, files and folders from one area to another.Other Examples of Pointing Devices or input devices are Barcode Reader, OCR, MCR, Joystick.
There are three types of mouse ::
- Mechanical Mouse
- Optical Mouse
- Infrared (IR) or radio frequency cordless mouse
Mechanical mouse :: This are the mouse which has a circular shape rounded rubber ball at the base of mouse which guides signs to computer which later are interpreted.
Optical Mouse:: It has a LED (Light Emitting Diode) sensor at the base of this mouse when a client uses a mouse in any applications or projects the LED Sensor sends a flag to a computer for the additional process. These mouse are speedier and reacts quickly.
Infrared IR :: This mouse are cod less they get their energy from batteries.
Scanners are input devices of the computer system. Client can store their images, pictures, documents which are on paper into the computer storage unit, for example, hard disk or pen drives. The precision of scanners are practically immaculate in light of the fact that it utilizes two sorts of strategies LAZER and CONTACT which utilizes light emission on the record or paper and after that Measure the light to get the estimation or value of the picture or document.
Scanners permits printed papers for scanning rather at that point contribution by utilization of mouse or keyboard, decreases the conceivable outcomes of human mistake and later the outcome are stored away in computer memory
for the additional process such as manipulating the images or documents inside the computer using software programs.The user can receive the desired output of the documents after processing.
Scanners are used as a part of scanning and storing of huge reports or pictures without
any potential outcomes of blunder
There are 2 sorts of scanners ::
- Hand Held Scanners
- Flat-bed Scanners
The trackball is Pointing device or an input device or an input gadget which comes in portable laptops and notebooks clients simply need to move their finger around the ball for pointing, choosing and dragging the documents, files, folders, and icons.The ball is settled inside a square box client does not need to move the box simply move their finger.It is no like a conventional mouse where an entire mouse is moved while pointing.It is very easy and efficient to use and can be installed in less space.
Joystick is another input device which is utilized as a part of CAD (Computer Aided Design) and playing PC games.The joystick can be moved DOWN LEFT and RIGHT it has a push button on the top which is utilized and used in playing computer games. They likewise have a spring embedded in them to enable the joystick to come to focus when not being used.
It has a vertical stick which enables the cursors to move in the graphical areas.There are a few keyboards where joystick is pre-installed or mounted on them .
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Light Pen ::
The light pen is another pointing device or gadget which is utilized like a pen.A light pen is a pen formed device. It comprises of light sensors which are activated or utilized when it is touched to show screens. It is used for choosing and drawing pictures it sends a flag and PC which distinguishes the position of the cursor.
It is likewise used to choose the projects or application or programs by simply going ahead it or pressing the little switch which is available in the light pen.
It is typically used as a part of CAD (Computer Aided Design) where client needs to draw specifically on the screen.
Touch screens ::
Touch screens can show or display and get data on the same screen. Touch might be characterized as touching the screen by fingers or by hand, they can be detected by fingers or pen-shaped stylus. Clients can specifically collaborate with touch screens without the use or mouse or keyboards. touch screens are considered as input devices and also output devices.
Optical Card Reader (OCR) ::
OCR is a mechanical or electronic gadget or device which can interpret or translate images, pictures, documents or manually written content into machine coherent shape. OCR additionally works like a scanner which can check documents, pictures, images, hand composed content and furthermore can store in memory which later can be contrasted with the previously stored data.
For Example, Barcodes can be examined specifically from the picture design and later this example is checked in the PC memory whether the separate information coordinates or not the information design which is already saved in computer memory. In straightforward or simple words OCR is a gadget or device which checks the printed content character by character vertically and changes over them in machine-readable form, and the information is additionally stored in PC memory.
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) ::
MICR is kind of information device which is broadly utilized as a part of banking sector where gigantic measure of checks must be handled each and every day. Banks utilize the check No, Account Details, Bank ID codes on every last checks they display to their Account holders, these sort of points of interest are composed of an extraordinary sort of paper and the points of interest are imprinted in ink which contains press oxide particles which can be further magnetized.
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MICR can read this type of information it reads
the coded information on cheques and compares the details on cheques with previously stored information. The information which is written by the Ink which contains iron oxide particulars can be read by MICR only.
Optical Bar Code Reader (OBR) ::
It is a PC input device which peruses standardized identifications.The information which is as light and dim lines which are vertically arranged with alphanumerical values these lines shifts in width and height.A standardized tag scanner utilizes a laser shaft innovation the lazer bar which is moved adjoining the bar lines of the standardized identifications when lazer pillar moved it get's reflected light from the scanner tags the reflected bar is detected by a light touchy detector, which changes over light example into electrical heartbeats and later for assist transformation of alphanumeric values.
The Barcode scanner is associated with a PC system where alphanumeric values are contrasted with the information saved or stored already in PC memory.
The Optical Bar Code Reader is generally utilized as a part of Big Malls, Shopping Houses, and Libraries
Voice Recognition Devices ::
In voice recognition devices or gadgets a mouthpiece is joined to the PC system.When a client speaks anything into the microphone the information is changed over from simple to computerized which is 0s and 1s which is in machine intelligible from which can be effectively perceived by machines. Later this information is coordinated with information already stored in PC and after that, the fundamental activity would be taken.
Web Cam ::
Webcam can take photos of any object or living thing where the photo was taken is changed over into advanced shape and store in PC later that images or picture can be controlled or altered in PC with exceptional altering software.
Video Camera ::
Video camera or Camcorder can shoot full movement catching and this recording can be put away in PC hard disk or some other storage medium.The user can duplicate the outcome.
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