What is a computer :: It is a device which can store gigantic amount of data or information and can perform numerous calculations and also can perform different and diverse task given to them , there are special computer for specific task and operations for example for space investigation and exploration, nuclear science, genetic engineering .Supercomputers are used because they are developed and are specialized in this type of operations and our expertise in this field. For home use just for entertainment watching movies , songs and graphics ,etc home PC or desktop computer are suitable for these sort of purposes.
For administrators, executives, representatives, and businessman laptop use is common and is utilized broadly and widely because of its mobility and portability as well as it can be used with the assistant of battery available inside every laptop.
and surely it can perform each and every task compared to Desktop or Home PC(Personal Computer),
Therefore different classifications of computers can be done with the help of some features they are size, functionality ,capabilities and speed.
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Classification of Computers
Three Types of Computer
The Computer are classified into three main types::
- Analog Computers
- Digital Computers
- Hybrid Computers (Analog+Digital)
Analog Computers ::
Analog Computer measures “Physical Quantities” for example Temperature, Voltage, Pressure, and Electric Current. These are the quantities which are continuously varied and persistently change from one measurement to another, just like the temperature of a human being or individual.They process the given data or instruction or information into an analog data or simple data.
They are equipped for measuring instead of counting or checking. They are also specifically designed for measuring and can perform arithmetical calculation upon number where numbers are indicated by physical quantities or physical amount. Analog computer are used in scientific and industrial ventures, where they have to screen temperature,voltages and electric currents.
Examples of Analog Computer ::
Digital Computers ::
The “Digital Computers” can complete or perform Arithmetic and logical operation when given to them
in a type of binary number system .These types of computers are not for measuring
physical quantities such as temperature, electric current, and voltages. They
are high speed programmable machines or computers which can play out numerous mathematical
calculations, and can store the data or information .When any instruction or direction given to them they
convert that instruction or data or information into machine readable form that is 0 or 1 which
is called as “Binary Number System”.
- Desktop Computer OR Personal Computer (PC)
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Hybrid Computers (Analog + Digital) :: They posses both the qualities and features of Analog and Digital computers, they can measure or guage physical quantities as well as counting or checking and are generally used in scientific and in medical use. Just for Example There are some machines which can calculate the heartbeats and temperature of human body and converts or change them into numbers.
Components of Computers
- Control Unit
- Storage Unit
Input unit accepts the data or set of instruction from outside the world with the assistant or help of input devices such as keyboard and mouse.
The input unit converts or change the data into binary number system and forwards the data for further and additional processing.
Output :: Output unit is a unit which produces or create the result or outcome , the data or information which is entered into the computer system is in binary form the output unit converts the data into human-readable or intelligent form and produce or deliver the output with the help of printers and monitors.
Control Unit :: Control unit can be called as a supervisor or nervous system of internal operation, it interprets and translates in each and every single operation provided to the computer system. At the point when the data is provided to computer system it take fundamental and necessary action, it controls every action and later decides what to do with the data or information presented to it.
The control unit controls and facilitates with every unit present in PC
ALU :: ALU stands for “Arithmetic and Logical Unit“ It is responsible and in charge for all the operations such as Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division , Comparison, and logical operations such as (Equal, Less, Greater) used in the operations. The results and outcomes from Arithmetic and Logic Unit are stored in a temporary memory.
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Storage Unit :: There are two types of storage unit in the Computer systems
- Primary Storage ::
- Secondary Storage ::
Primary storage :: Primary storage can be called as “MAIN MEMORY” ,it can not hold or save the data if there is a power failure or when there is no power to computer system ,hence it can also be called as “TEMPORARY MEMORY”
The data or set of instruction are stores in primary memory before transferring to ALU for additional preparing
The primary memory has a limited storing capacity as compared to secondary storage,and are very expensive.
Example ::RAM(Random Access Memory)
Secondary Storage :: Secondary storage can be called as “PERMANENT STORAGE”, it can hold or save the data or set of instruction almost permanently if there is a power failure or no power still the user can retrieve the data whenever needs. They can store huge amount of data and are cheaper then Primary memory.
Example ::(HDD) HARDDISK DRIVES
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Different Classifications of Computers Based on Size
The computer can be classified in four different types
- Super Computers
- Mini Computers
- Micro Computers
- Mainframe Computers
Super Computer ::
They are tremendously fast and can perform millions of instruction
per second their speed is calculated in “FLOPS” Floating
Point Operations,they can perform over 1.2 billion instruction per second and can
store huge amount of data,they are immense in size,and are most powerful then any
other computer and are used in complex scientific application such
as nuclear energy , genetic engineering , Atomic energy, weather forecasting
, defense , space exploriation and so forth.
They are also used in counting the measurement of earthquakes ,they are substantially more costlier when contrasted or compared with others.
Mini computers :: They are commonly known as “Midrange Computers” they were developed in 1960’s using transistors and core memory technology and are smaller, cheaper, and has an enormous data or information storage capacity, Minicomputers are used in production industry where they are defined a task or assignment to monitor the production process. can be used or utilized as a “HOST” in a system networking condition with 100s of terminals ,they have a difficult operating system can perform different task simultaneously. They are digital computers which can perform with high speed and are used in independent ventures and also in scientific use. The powerful minicomputers are called as “SUPER-MINIS”
Micro Computers ::
They are the most common and well-known types of computers .They used microprocessor (CPU) microprocessor is a silicon chip where hundreds of component are fit such as transistor ,capacitor and resistor.
They possess input, output , storage ,control unit for better functionality of computers.
Microcomputers are also called as “PERSONAL COMPUTERS” they are truly modest really cheap, high performing, with a decent storage unit, and have become really famous in the end user market these days due to its efficiency and low in cost. They can be treated as a “WORKSTATION” where several other PC can connect to them in the computer networking environment.
- Desktop Computers
- Handheld Computer or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
- Mobile Devices
Desktop Computer :: Are also called as “personal computers” and are cheap, small in size, reliable, works with AC Power they are so small to a point that they can be fit on a table.
Input devices such as keyboard and mouse can be used or utilized in desktop PC they don't have mobility and versatility or neither they are portable.
Laptops :: Laptops are hugely popular these days as they are mobile and can be used on any location. Students, professionals, even businessman can carry out their working anywhere they like, they can work with AC Power or with Battery. Each and every operation or application can be used, with high speed and high performance (CPUs), Dell & Compaq are the leading brand that manufactures Laptop.
Notebooks :: Notebooks are smaller devices or little gadgets with Graphical display screen, user can watch movies, surf the net and can perform each and every action or operation compared to laptops and desktops.
Handheld Computer or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) :: The smallest of all is the handheld computer called as Personal Digital Assistant (PDA).They are extremely smaller in size, PDA are pen-based computer as they do their operations utilizing a pen-like stylus..
Mobile Devices: : They are extremely small devices as these devices are so small they can be kept in our pockets.Android and Windows-based operating system mobiles are available in market .user can carry out an operation such as playing movies, songs, surfing the net.they are hugely popular as their functionality has been enhanced drastically with improved hardware and software features.
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