What are the Four Basic Functions of Computer System?

The Functions of Computer systems and their application are endless nowadays because of the speedy development of the modern computer.

The Computer Processor which is commonly called as CPU [Central Processing Unit] is getting advanced day by day as well as the input, output, internal and external devices.

The overall development of the computer system has reached a different level so it’s very difficult to categorize them.

Here we are going to discuss some basic functionality of computer systems irrespective of their applications, power, size, and capacity.

The computer can execute information or data provided to them in less than one-millionth of a second. Some supercomputers (PARAM) can execute or perform the operation in less than one billionth of a second.

Initially, the data or instruction or information or guidelines is given to the computer system with the help of input devices and the data is placed in Primary memory and later the data is sent to the central processing unit for further operation.

At the point when the data or instruction is sent to a central processing unit, it does the following task for better computer functionality.

  • The central processing unit receives or gets its information from Primary memory
  • It then decides which form of data is this and what should be the suitable or appropriate action for the set of instruction, for example, the central processing unit decides to send this data to ALU (Arithmetic & Logic Unit)
  • Arithmetic and logical operation are executed by ALU.
  • Once the operation is finished the result or outcome is stored in ALU and after that, the data or instruction is sent or forwarded to output devices in human-readable or intelligent form.
Functions of Computers
Four Basic Functions of Computer System

The Four Basic Functions of Computer System are Mentioned Below ::

  • Input
  • Output
  • Processing
  • Storage

Also Read ::

Functions of Computer
Functions of Computer System

Input Functions of Computer System

The data or set of information is provided or given to computer system through input devices such as Keyboard, mouse, and so on.

The Information is given to them in a raw form later the data is handled or processed and hence we receive the data in encoded form with the assistance or help of output devices.

The input devices accept the data from outside the world It is responsible and in charge of transferring, processing, and exchanging the given instruction and information.

The input devices are considered to be the essential parts of the computer they are electromagnetic devices which accept information and data from the outside world and translate or convert this data into human-readable form.

The other function of input devices are they perform an intermediate relation between outside the world and our computer.

  1. Input devices enter data from outside the world to the computer system.
  2. It can also convert information and data into human-readable form.
  3. When the data or information is gathered by input devices it transfers the data to the control unit for further processing and later this information or data is forwarded to output devices for displaying the desired result on the screen which is also called as VDU (Visual Display Unit).
  4. They receive raw data which is not readable and computer system converts them into an intelligent form which makes some sense to human being which is considered to be the important and major function of the computer.
  5. The prime examples of input devices are keyboard, mouse, etc.

The computer mouse is considered to be one of the most used input devices of a computer and they are also called “pointing devices”.

The mouse acts as an interface between user and computer. They are comparatively more used than keyboards as they can point precisely on the screen.

Mouse-Input Function of Computer
Mouse-Input Function of Computer

They are also able to click, double click, drag, and select files or folders in a graphical interface, and hence mouse is used in GUI [Graphical User Interface] interface more often than not.

They are very cheap and primarily used in software application where the need of speed is required for selection and performing some task and operation with considerable pace whereas to select some files and folders keyboards are very difficult to handle this sort of operations.

The mouse is a small computer device that has two buttons one on the left side and the other on the right side with a wheel in between the two buttons which are used to scroll documents and web pages.

There are mainly three types of mouse

  1. Normal mouse.
  2. PS2 mouse.
  3. Wireless Mouse | Codeless.

The Computer keyboard is generally used for entering data or information into the computer they are also the most used input device of the computer.

Keyboard -Input Function of Computer
Keyboard -Input Function of Computer

There are various keys available on keyboards like

  • Function keys:: F1 to F12.
  • Special Keys: These sorts of keys are called combination keys which are used with combinations like shift or ctrl. !, @, #, *, &, ^, % , etc.
  • Alphabetic Keys:: These are used to enter alphabets.

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Output Functions of Computer

Once the process task of central processing unit is completed or finished it forward’s the data ,instruction and information to output devices such as printer, Computer monitor, TFT, LCD, Speaker.

Lazer Printer-Input Function of Computer
Lazer Printer

The output can also be stored or hold in recording medium like DVDs and Hard disk for further use. The outputs square measure within the style of electrical pulses.

The Output devices of a computer are electromagnetic devices that can convert digital signals into logical signals and accepts data in binary form which are 0’s and 1’s and convert them in human-readable form.

The output devices are generally used for presenting the end result of the processed data.

There are two types of output

  1. SoftCopy.
  2. HardCopy.

SoftCopy is the form of output which are in the form of text, images, and graphics that can be transferred or distributed using mail and other forms of devices.

HardCopy are the output which is obtained on paper, cloths, etc where one can feel and touch the desired result.

  • The output devices act as an intermediate between outside the world a computer system.
  • They coverts data or information into a human-readable form.
  • The Prime examples of output devices are printers, monitors, etc.


There are two types of printers.

  1. Impact Printers.
  2. Non-Impact Printers.

The computer printer is considered to be the famous major important output device that can print the desired result on paper, cloths, etc.

The speed of the printer can be described as the time taken to complete a single printout which varies from printer to printer.

The speed of printers can be measured in CPS [Character Per Second], LPS [Lines Every Second], PPS [Pages every Second],

The speed of obtaining printouts depends entirely on the quality of the printer and the manufacturer.

Processing of Computer System

This is also called as the core of the computer system.

When the data or information is transferred from the memory to the control unit for further processing the entire operation is handled in a sequential manner and later it is transferred to output devices to generate the desired output..

Also Read ::

Storage Unit of Personal Computer

When the data, instruction or guidelines are given to the computer it is stored in primary memory before real processing of the data and information starts. There are two types of storage

Primary Storage:: It is also called main memory or RAM [Random Access Memory]. It is very expensive and is unable to store the data when power is off.

RAM [Random Access Memory]
RAM [Random Access Memory]

It is an important component that unable functioning of computer system in an proper order.

Secondary Storage:: It is also called a permanent memory. They can store data permanently and the user can recall or retrieve the data whenever required.

Computer Hard-Disk

They can hold or store data when there is a power off. The Computer Hard disk was developed and first launched in the market in the year 1956 by IBM [International Business Machine].

They are one of the most important parts of the computer system. If the computer does not have a hard disk it is difficult for the system to function with its full potential.

One need to install an operating system as an OS is the basic and important system software that helps other application software to be installed and execute in proper order.

If you like the article on Basic Functions of Computer feel free to like, share it with your friends, family, and colleagues if found any corrections in the article feel free to contact me.Thank you !!

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