5 Functions of Control Unit in Computer System and Architecture

The control unit is also called "CU". 

The control unit is responsible for regulating all the significant tasks and operations given to them by the computer system.

It also regulates and manages all the activities performed in the computer system. It also manages and controls input, output, and storage.

The primary functions of control unit are to help regulate and manage the high performance of all the activities done inside the computer system.

What is Control Unit in Computer Systems and Computer Architecture?

The control unit or CU is programmed to control all the activities performed inside the computer system.

The computer system’s main memory transfers information and instructions to the control unit. 

It regulates and indicates other units such as logic unit, memory, input, and output unit on handling and dealing with specific instructions or problems in sequential order.

The control unit first converts all signals into control signals; later.

These signals are transferred to the central processor for further handling and processing, recognizing which operation is executed and in which precise order.

The task of the control unit of the processor is to decode the word binary machine in the instruction register and issue the appropriate control signal. 

The control unit sends the control signal to the ALU.

After performing arithmetic and logical calculations as per the requirement, it sends it to the register set to save or hold it temporarily.

All information and instructions are processed with the help of a processor.

The process entirely depends upon the task and operations given to the computer system, i.e. processor.

This processor completes every operation in step by step process, and later the result is transferred to output devices for further processing.

2 Examples of Output Devices of Computer

The examples of output devices of a computer system are 

Five Functions of Control Unit in Computer System in Points

  • The control unit in the computer system controls regulates and manages all the devices in the computer.
  • The control unit decides all the activities performed in the computer system, specifically in sequential order.
  • It also regulates and manages all the operations of the processor or CPU.
  • They are responsible for communicating between ALU {Arithmetic Logic Unit} and Main Memory inside the computer system.
  • The Control unit manages and regulates it and coordinates between the input, output, and storage devices.
  • It controls and tells the input devices to read the data and instructions from the source and save their desired memory location.
  • It also controls all the necessary activities inside the ALU [Arithmetic Logic Unit].
  • It also plays a vital role in the booting process of the computer system.
  • It also helps processors to complete all the necessary activities given to them.
  • It handles all the major activities like fetching, decoding, and execution.
  • The control unit is an integrated circuit in a processor.

Functions of Control Unit in Computer Architecture with Image

5 Functions of Control Unit in Computer System
5 Functions of Control Unit in Computer System

Examples of Control Unit

Examples of devices that utilize control units include CPUs and GPUs.

Useful Video on Main Functions of Control Units in Computer

Types of Control Units in Computer Architecture

 There are two types of control units
  • Hardwired control unit 
  • Micro-programmable control unit.

Functions of ALU

The functions of ALU are as follows
  • Arithmetic Operations.
  • Bit Shift Operations.
  • Bitwise Logical Operations.

Logic Unit and Arithmetic Logic Unit

  • Arithmetic Unit (AU)
  • Logic Unit (LU)

ALU can perform arithmetic and logic calculations with high speed and incredible accuracy. Modern processors are equipped with multiple AU [Arithmetic Unit]. 

When an instruction or information is sent to the computer system, the control unit controls it and performs the required operations.

The arithmetic operations are (Addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication), and the logical unit carries out the operation such (as AND, OR, Equal, less than, and greater than).

later the control is changed to ALU and the result is generated.

Functional Unit of Computer System

 The functional unit of a computer system are divided into five types
Functional Unit of Computer
Functional Unit of Computer
  • Input
  • Output
  • Memory
  • Arithmetic And Logic Unit
  • Control Unit

What are the 4 Functions of CPU?

The 4 functions of CPU [Central Processing Unit] are
  • Fetch.
  • Decode.
  • Execute.
  • Write Back.
Functions of CPU
Functions of CPU

Functions of Operating System

An operating system is one of the most important system software that is responsible for computer startup and proper functioning of computer system.

The operating system [OS] can easily interact with computer hardware devices to achieve desired results, and also to create a user-friendly atmosphere between user and system.

Functions of Operating System
Functions of Operating System
There are various significant functions of operating system that are included below.
1Process Management.
2Memory Management.
3File System Management.
4Device Management.
5User Interface.
6Networking.
7Network Protocols.
8Security and Access Control.
9Error Handling.
10Process Communication and Synchronization.

The above-mentioned functions of operating system works and functions collectively to perform given tasks and operations effectively and securely.

There are various operating system available in the market.
  1. Microsoft Windows.
  2. Linux.
  3. Unix.
  4. Mac OS.
  5. Android.

Different Types of CPU [Central Processing Unit]

  • Single Core
  • Dual Core
  • Quad-Core
  • Hexa Core
  • Octa-Core
  • Deca Core
Different Types of Processor
Different Types of Processor

Functions of Arithmetic Logic Unit

The ALU is an essential part of the CPU [Central Processing Unit] capable of performing all arithmetic and logical operations.

The ALU performs calculations given by input devices, and after processing and handling, it is forwarded to output devices in human-readable form.

The output can be in the form of “Hard Copy” and “Soft Copy.”

The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is a crucial processor component that performs all operations like [ addition, subtraction, multiplication, and comparison ].

The ALU also handles logical operations such as ANDing and ORing bits together to make decisions based on their values.

As such, it’s an essential part of any computing device — without it, there would be no way for your computer to do anything.

The ARU also handles all control signals going into or out of the CPU. These include ALU carry flag (), C0 carry flag (), and ALU.

The arithmetic logic unit is a piece of hardware device that is one of the essential devices of the computer system.

It performs mathematical calculations at high speed and accuracy.

It can also be used for other functions like comparisons and bit-shifting operations.

The ALU has three parts: Fetch, Decode, and Execute (FDE).

What are 4 Types of Processors?

  1. Microprocessor
  2. Microcontroller.
  3. Embedded Processor
  4. Digital Signal Processor
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Frequently Asked Questions [FAQs]

What is ALU?

ALU [Arithmetic Logic Unit] performs all the arithmetic and logical operations performed in the computer system.

Does Control Unit Store Data?

No, it is responsible for communicating with input, output, and storage devices for data processing,

What Unit Controls the CPU?

The control unit controls all computer operations, including arithmetic logic operations.

How Many Parts are there in CPU?

There are three main parts in the CPU that are Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control Unit (CU), and Storage or Memory Unit.

Control Unit is Hardware or Software

Control Unit is hardware.

What is Control Unit also called?

The Control Unit of a digital computer is called Nerve Centre.

Which Unit is called a Control Unit?

The Control Unit and Arithmetic Logic Unit is called the “Central Processing Unit”.

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