5 Functions of Control Unit in Computer System and Architecture


The control unit is also called “CU”. The control unit is responsible for regulating all the significant tasks and operations given to them by the computer system. It also regulates and manages all the activities performed in the computer system. It also manages and controls input, output and storage. The primary functions of control unit is to help regulate and manage the high performance of all the activities done inside the computer system.

What is Control Unit in Computer System and Computer Architecture?

The control unit or CU is programmed to control all the activities performed inside the computer system.

The computer system’s main memory transfers information and instructions to the control unit. 

It regulates and indicates other units such as logic unit, memory, input and output unit on handling and dealing with specific instructions or problems in sequential order.

The control unit first converts all signals into control signals; later, these signals are transferred to the central processor for further handling and processing, recognizing which operation is executed and in which precise order.

The task of the control unit of the processor is to decode the word binary machine in the instruction register and issue the appropriate control signal. 

The control unit sends the control signal to the ALU. After performing arithmetic and logical calculations as per the requirement, it sends it to the register set to save or hold it temporarily.

All information and instructions are processed with the help of a processor. The process entirely depends upon the task and operations given to the computer system, i.e. processor.

This processor completes every operation in step by step process, and later the result is transferred to output devices for further processing.

The examples of output devices of a computer system are 

Five Functions of Control Unit in Computer System in Points

  • The control unit in the computer system controls, regulates and manages all the devices in the computer.
  • The control unit decides all the activities performed in the computer system, specifically in sequential order.
  • It also regulates and manages all the operations of the processor or CPU.
  • They are responsible for communicating between ALU {Arithmetic Logic Unit} and Main Memory inside the computer system.
  • The Control unit manages and regulates it and coordinates between the input, output, and storage devices.
  • It controls and tells the input devices to read the data and instructions from the source and save their desired memory location.
  • It also controls all the necessary activities inside the ALU [Arithmetic Logic Unit].
  • It also plays a vital role in the booting process of the computer system.
  • It also helps processors to complete all the necessary activities given to them.
  • It handles all the major activities like fetching, decoding, and execution.
  • The control unit is an integrated circuit in a processor.

Functions of Control Unit in Computer Architecture with Image

5 Functions of Control Unit in Computer System
5 Functions of Control Unit in Computer System

Examples of Control Unit

Examples of devices that utilize control units include CPUs and GPUs.

Types of Control Units in Computer Architecture

 There are two types of control units: 
  • Hardwired control unit 
  • Micro-programmable control unit.

Functions of ALU

The functions of ALU are as follows
  • Arithmetic Operations.
  • Bit Shift Operations.
  • Bitwise Logical Operations.

Logic Unit and Arithmetic Logic Unit

  • Arithmetic Unit (AU)
  • Logic Unit (LU)

ALU can perform arithmetic and logic calculations with high speed and incredible accuracy. The modern processors are equipped with multiple AU [Arithmetic Unit]. 

When an instruction or information is sent to the computer system, the control unit controls it and performs required operations.

The arithmetic operations are (Addition, subtraction, division, multiplication), and the logical unit carries out the operation such (AND, OR, Equal, less than, greater than), and later the control is changed to ALU and the result generated in.

Functional Unit of Computer System

 The functional unit of a computer system are divided into five types
  • Input
  • Output
  • Memory
  • Arithmetic And Logic Unit
  • Control Unit
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Frequently Asked Questions [FAQs]

What is ALU?

ALU [Arithmetic Logic Unit] performs all the arithmetic and logical operations performed in the computer system.

Does Control Unit Store Data?

No, it is responsible for communicating with input, output and storage devices for data processing,

What Unit Controls the CPU?

The control unit controls all computer operations, including arithmetic logic operations.

How Many Parts are there in CPU?

There are three main parts in the CPU that are Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control Unit (CU), and Storage or Memory Unit.

Control Unit is Hardware or Software

Control Unit is hardware.

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