Draw and Explain Basic Block Diagram of Optical Communication System

The optical fiber cable is a very thin wire made of plastic and glass.

The optical fiber cable does not require electricity to transfer data and information from one end to another.

The use of the internet has become household stuff all our daily routine tasks and operations are done with the help of high-speed internet which uses optic fiber cable.

Therefore optical fiber is considered to be the backbone of optical communication systems.

Let us discuss the block diagram of optical communication system for better understanding.

What is Optical Communication System?

An optical fiber is a thin, flexible, transparent cable that uses light quickly and efficiently to transmit data. 

It operates on the total internal reflection principle.

Light is used to communicate between optical fibers and not electricity, and through the use of light, communication speeds increase.

There are many types of wires or cables, but optical fibers are the most commonly used and are capable to transfer data and information more efficiently compared to their counterparts.

These types of wires are more expensive than any other type of cable.

The data transfer seed is approximately 3 lakh kilometers per second. By the way, this is the speed of light.

In 1966, optic fiber was tasted for the first time, but it was far from being perfect, but as time progressed, optic fiber development continued, also ongoing.

During most of the development in 1975, the first optical fiber was developed, after which the speed increased from 10 kilometers to 50 kilometers, and then from 50 kilometers to 100 kilometers.

In an optical fiber the data and information are received with the help of a single transmitter also the data transfer happens on both sides.

With this transmitter, the electronic pulse information is settled down and is transferred to the fiber via light pulses.

It is transmitted as a light pulse inside the cable, and at the receiver end, it is converted into binary values, which the computer understands and gives us information.

Cables made of optical fiber are fragile; they are thinner than a human hair.

Optical fiber cable has two layers, the core, and cladding. The optical fiber’s refractive index causes internal reflection.

which can be protected under polyamides for protection as you use more energy and the layers increase, and light does not pass from one fiber to another. 

Draw Basic Block Diagram of Optical Communication System With Picture

Block Diagram of Optical Communication System
Block Diagram of Optical Communication System

Advantages of Optical Communication System

  • Fiber optics can transmit and receive data very fast at a very long distance in only a fraction of the time.
  • Compared to electric wire, it has a bandwidth of 10 to 100 times. This means that they may receive and send more data simultaneously.
  • We know that light is much faster than electric current. Therefore, it is less harmful than electric current.
  • The insulating properties of optical fibers prevent magnetic waves from affecting them.
  • Fiber optic cables are too small in size and weight; they are as small as hair.
  • Optical fiber gives you security. It is not easy to break this security.
  • In this data is not transferred in analogy they transmit digital way, data is transfer in an analogue way also, but it is different that’s why they use digital way.

10 Examples of Optical Communication Systems

  1. Optical fiber is used for communication and data transfer through telephone lines.
  2. In television, signals are carried with the help of optical cable fiber.
  3. To find molecules from the human body, use optic fiber cables are found normally.
  4. In industry, optical fibers are used for welding applications. 
  5. In the medical industry, fiber is used for endoscopies for light transmission.
  6. The fiber optic cable is used and utilized in transmitting data and information at a more considerable distance.
  7. This technology is extensively and primarily used on the internet.
  8. Fiber optic cable is also used for decorations; they also look attractive.
  9. They have strong security because of this. It is used in the military.
  10. Optical fiber is also used between computers in offices.

List the Component of Digital Communication.

Communication is the means of language to interact with others, but for communications, there are several components like cables, radio waves, and optic fiber cables at a longer distance.

There are some components given below.

A message that can be sent to the person no matter where the person is can be reached that person.

With the help of a mobile, laptop, and another device that sends the information, the receiver who receives the message also has a device like a mobile and a computer.

Different Types of Communication Systems

Different Types of Communication Systems
Different Types of Communication Systems

Optical Communication System

An optical communication system means the transfer medium is light for communicating in that system transmitter converts the communication into the light means an optical medium that reaches the destination.

A helicopter takes the help of optical communication devices for landing, and the airplane also receives a signal from the base and decides the next move.

On-road, there are signals for controlling traffic.

A red indicating stop signal and a green signal for this use of an optical communication system.

Radio Communication System

In a Radio communication system, the data is transferred with the help of radio signals in there are one is a sender, and the other is a receiver, and there an antenna also with the use of it they catch the radio signals. 

If someone sends some data, they transfer it through the radio signal with the help of an antenna and others who catch this signal receive it by encoding it, and the receiver gets the correct data.

Duplex Communication System

In this Duplex communication system, there is data transfer from both sides sender and receiver. It is just like a telephone.

If you interact with another friend, you can send the data and receive it. 

There must be two points or ends where one can send data and information and the other can receive.

Half Duplex Communication System

In the half-duplex communication system, single-way communication occurs. The other is received after this transmission is over if one is communicating.

The other will communicate with the first person both do not do the same thing simultaneously, send or receive. 

It is just like walkie talkie in which the first person sends a message and then the other person.

#Communication Systems
1Optical Communication System
2Radio Communication System
3Duplex Communication System
4Half Duplex Communication System

What is an Optical Fiber System?

Optical fiber is a flexible and transparent fiber made up of drawing glass or plastic that sizes the diameter of human hair.

It is used for sending data, voice, and images with the help of light for transmitting over a long distance from one end to another. 

The optical fiber transmission of data travels over a longer distance and has higher bandwidth.

With the help of optical fiber, data is transmitted over a long distance in which fiber wire is used instead of metal wire because using fiber, there are low chances of losing data and can transfer over a longer distance.

What are the Major Components of an Optical Communication System?

Optical fiber wires that transmit light are thin and flexible and made up of glass or transparent plastic.

Optical fiber has divided into three types.

  • Core.
  • Cladding.
  • Jacket.


This is the inside part of the optical fiber wire made up of glass or transparent plastic that is so thin, flexible, and cylindrical in shape work of this is to take the light in them and store it inside an on-axis parallel guide.

This is the primary carrier and guide for light waves; because of this, all the transferred data depend on these segments of transmission parameter properties.


This is the second layer, and it is also made up of transparent glass and plastic, but this is made up of slightly different material.

That’s why as compared to the cladding core refractive index is less, which work has stayed light inside of the core.

The Refractive index of the cladding is less than the core from which it creates reflection between the cladding boundaries, and this process is called total internal reflection.

From the basis of this optical Fiber, communication is possible.


This is used for protecting the core and cladding to make for this flexible and abrasion-resistant plastic are used inside the jacket there is the second layer which is called a buffer.

#Components of Optical Communication System
Related Articles 

Guided and Unguided Transmission Media

#Guided Transmission Media Unguided Transmission Media
1Twisted Pair CableRadio Waves
2Coaxial CableMicro Waves
3 Optic fiber CableInfrared Waves

Frequently Asked Questions [FAQs]

What Fiber Optics Cables Do?

The fiber optics cables are made of plastic and glass that is capable of transmitting data and information at high speed.

What are the Applications of Optical Communication?

The five applications of optical communications are

Medical Industry
Government Sectors
Computer Networking

Who Invented Optic Fiber?

Sir Charles Kuen Kao is called the “Father of Optic Fiber”. He was an electrical engineer and a physicist.

He discovered optic fiber in 1960 which laid the benchmark for providing high-speed data transmission from one end to another.

What Type of Wave is used in Optical Fiber?

Infrared Light is used for data transmission in optical fiber.

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