What is a Computer Memory :: It stores or saves instructions and results, the results can be saved permanently as well as temporarily. The data or instruction once saved can be retrieve or recall or review whenever user demands.
They can store huge amount of data and information as per requirements. The user can use the data whenever needs. The Computer Hard Disk used as a memory has the capabilities for storing volumes of data such as songs, movies, pictures, software’s one can easily get access to this data whenever or wherever user demands. Users can be rest a sure of their data, as the data is stored almost permanently.
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Different Types of Computer Memory
The computer memory can be classified in Four different types ::
- Internal Processor Memory
- Main memory | RAM (Random Access Memory)|Primary Memory
- Cache Memory
- Storage | Secondary Memory
Internal Processor Memory ::
This tiny high speed registers which lives internally in a CPU or Processor, these registers are used and utilized in storing the data or instruction and information temporarily before the data is processed further where real processing and preparing takes place.
These registers are placed inside ALU and control unit, they are high speed which performs arithmetical and logical operations in enormous speed, they stores or hold the data or instructions and information temporarily during the process, registers are extremely efficient.
Registers work under the control of control unit for accepting and storing the data or instructions and information. The speed or the processing and handling strength of computer system relies upon the size, capacity, and limit of registers. A few registers can hold up to 8 bits to 16 bits of data.Yet as the improvement in the cutting edge innovation the microchip or microprocessor has been created, designed and developed to make the operation and applications work significantly speedier than some time before.
The more up to date microprocessor or microchip can hold 32 bit to 128 bit registers, as this registers capacity of holding the data has been increased so the computer system speed for accessing, handling, preparing and processing the data speed has been dramatically increased and expanded.
Different types computer uses and utilizes different types of registers relying on their size ,abilities and capabilities. These cache memory stores the data and information temporarily and they are faster compared to main memory, as they reside or dwells inside the processor their speed of transferring the data to other location are faster than any other " computer memory".
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Primary or Main Memory ::
Primary or Main Memory is additionally called as “SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY”. This is likewise a Temporary memory which holds or saves data and information temporarily, as when there is a power failure or no power the data or information is lost. They work or hold only on the present data which is being used and utilized by a computer system. They are not as fast as the registers.The semiconductor memory is faster, smaller, lighter and they consume less power Compared to secondary storage. They have a limited capacity, as well as they are very costly and can store only a couple of bytes of data.
They are essential memories to a computer as if they removed from a computer it fails to start or boot normally. Each and every computer needs primary memory to work properly. The Capacity of primary memory is calculated in MB (Mega-Bytes) and GB (Gega-Bytes).nowadays They come in huge capacities ranges from 2 GB to 16 GB.
The main memory is further classified into two categories ::
- RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY)
- ROM (READ ONLY MEMORY)
RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY) ::
The RAM Is known as “Random Access Memory”. This is a volatile memory that means it cannot stores or saves the data or instruction or set of information once the power is off. They are fast, less expensive & light. Ram can transfer or exchange data from and to CPU considerably speedier than secondary storage. The RAM is placed inside the computer system to be precise they are installed on a computer motherboard and it is also a primary reason for computer speed. It is used for storing all active programs or instruction with a goal that it can be additionally exchanged to CPU for the additional process.
Random Access Memory [RAM]
The technology used in RAM is based on semiconductor integrated circuits.Ram is divided into two more categories
- Static Ram
- Dynamic Ram
Static RAM :: The static Ram stores binary information in clocked sequential circuits. It is comprised of flip-flops and stores a touch of voltages. It is a volatile or unstable memory if the power is from the data or instructions are destroyed. This kind of memory does not require refreshing.
Dynamic RAM :: Dynamic RAM stores binary information in the form of electric charges that are connected to capacitors which are inside the chip. This type of Ram Consume less power and are capable of storing or holding more data and information compared to static RAM.
ROM (READ ONLY MEMORY) ::
ROM Stands for “READ ONLY MEMORY” they are non-volatile or non-unstable if the power is off it can still store the data permanently. They can be used as a permanent storage.
Read Only Memory [ROM]
Users can not manipulate the data which is inside this memory only the manufacturer or programmers
writes programs or instruction inside them .which are used to boot the
computer or operating systems when computer is powered on.
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ROM are of different Types ::
PROM stands for “Programmable Read Only Memory” it is also a type of non-volatile memory .which once programmed or customized then the set of instruction or information Stored cannot be deleted or updated or refreshed. Computer Programmers or software developers write and compose program or codes in this chip in such a fashion to receive the desired functionality, special equipment are used to write programs inside the chip.
EPROM stands for “Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory” as the name suggest the programs which had been written and composed by computer programmers can be Deleted or updated or changed according to the necessities. One simply need to uncover this chip to High Ultraviolet light for over 20 minutes to delete the information. Once exposed they can be reused after Reprogrammed
They should not be overexposed to avoid damage.You cannot delete, erase a single content from them as if you try to do it the whole data or information inside the chip gets deleted or erased. This type of memory are broadly used as they are cheap and reliable.
EEPROMS stands for “Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory” to erase or delete the information or data inside them one should take the memory outside the PCB (Printed Circuit Board).As the time required for erasing the information is significantly more speedier the EPROMs.
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CACHE MEMORY Of Computer System
Cache memory dwells between primary memory and CPU [Central Processing Unit].It is extremely expensive therefore manufacturer uses it in low numbers. They are fast and reliable. They are likewise called as high-speed semiconductors. They are primarily responsible for accelerating the CPU. They hold or store the data which is frequently used by “COMPUTER PROCESSOR”.
This program or information is transferred and exchanged from disk to cache memory with the assistance of operating system so that Processor can access them. They are considerably much faster than main memory, the data exchanging time is less as compared to main memory. This is one of the fastest Computer memory used in computer systems. Powerful computer uses more cache memory to speed up the process of information transferring and exchanging.
Storage | Secondary Memory of Computer
Secondary Storage is also called as “AUXILLARY MEMORY”. They are also called as “PERMANENT MEMORY” as they are non-volatile in nature the data stored in them is stored permanently and the user can get access to their data any time user requests. If the power is off they still don’t lose the data because of its non-volatile nature.
They are slowest and the least expensive type of PC memory as they can't directly and straightforwardly get access to CPU they utilize the primary memory for storing and holding their information partially. They can stores large volumes of data permanently, and whenever the computer system requires the data it can be served to primary memory for advance processing.
The different types of secondary Memory which are used in computer systems ::
- Magnetic Tapes
- Floppy Disk
- Zip Drives
- Optical Disk
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