In this article, I will discuss and explain the basic Characteristics and Features of Second Generation Computer System in Points with advantages, speed, types, explanation with examples and images.
As we all know, the development of computers started in the 16th century, and computer development has made rapidly speed during some decades.
The computer is divided and categorized according to its performance, speed, reliability, efficiency, and size.
The development of the computer system has been divided into various timelines known as different generations of computer systems.
In 1947, the transistor was developed, and these transistors replaced vacuum tubes for better performance.
What are the Second Generation Computer Systems in Points with Examples and Images?
The second-generation timeline is from 1954 to 1962. This second (2nd) generation of computer transistors was predominantly used and utilized for better results.
Three physicians named John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley invented the transistor at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in 1947.
The transistor is a semiconductor device used to regulate current or more output signals to input signals.
The transistors were far better and more advanced than old-fashioned vacuum tubes; therefore, transistors were used in building 2nd generations of computers, making this computer small in size, compact in design, and speedy.
These second 2nd generations of computer systems use high-level programming languages like COBOL and FORTRAN.
They used assembly language despite machine language.
They used punch cards for input and printouts for outputs. The data and information were stored with the help of magnetic core technology.
This memory is used as primary memory storage and magnetic tapes, and magnetic disk for secondary storage.
The speed of second-generation computers was far better than first-generation computers due to the use of transistors, which were far better, advanced, and enhanced than their counterparts.
They also used a new advanced operating system capable of multitasking, multiprocessing, and batch processing.
The 2nd generation computers are faster than 1st generation computers. They require less energy and are less expensive.
Computer Generations were utilized as a part of the industry of nuclear energy, and their examples are
- IBM 7030/7094
- Honeywell 400 Philco
Explain the Features of Second Generation Computer System
- The second-generation computer was based on transistors rather than vacuum tubes. This is considered to be the main feature of the second-generation computer system.
- They are quite reliable and user-friendly.
- They can use and process assemblies and high-level languages like FORTRAN and COBOL.
- They produce fewer amounts of heat and energy.
- They are smart and faster than 1st generation of computer systems.
- As they produce heat and energy, they require Air conditioners for better cooling and performance.
- They are less expensive than the first generations of computer systems.
- Second generations of computer systems are more compact and small in size.
- They are reliable machines.
- Magnetic Tape and disks are used as secondary storage.
Explain and Discuss Characteristics of Second Generation Computer
- The Second Generation Computer System Uses Transistors for enhanced performance.
- They Use punch cards for inputs and printouts for outputs.
- They reduced all operational time required for processing and handling any tasks and jobs.
- They were equipped to establish a connection between devices.
- The magnetic core technology is used for data and information storage.
- They consume less heat and energy.
- They are quite inexpensive.
- They require AC.
- Second-generation computers are small in size.
- They were faster in comparison with first-generation computers.
- They are portable compared to first-generation computers.
- Assembly language was used for programming.
- Hardware devices are less prone to failure.
- Manual assembly of individual components into a functional unit was still required.
Benefits and Advantages of Second Generation Computers in Points
- They use transistors, which is far more advanced technology than the first generation of computers.
- They use magnetic tapes and magnetic drums for storage.
- For input, punch cards are used.
- This computer uses assembly language.
- They are small and hence need space for installation.
- Produce less heat and energy.
- Consume less electricity.
Drawbacks and Disadvantages of Second Generation Computer Systems in Points
- It needs an air conditioner.
- Prone to hardware failure, there needed huge maintenance.
- Punch cards were slow to operate and hence made a significant impact on the speed,
- They were cheaper than first-generation computers but still very expensive and were not that affordable.
- They were designed and developed to achieve special tasks and operations.
- Used for particular purposes only.
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List the Examples of Second Generation Computer
State and discuss the examples of the second generation of computer system
- UNIVAC 1108
- Honeywell 400
- CDC 1604
- CDC 3600
- PDP (Programmed Data Processor).
The Second Generation Computer Was Based On
The second-generation computer was based on a transistor that replaced vacuum tubes.
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