11 Differences Between Second Generation and Third Generation Computer System With Examples


We will learn and discuss the Differences Between Second Generation and Third Generation Computer systems in this article. In today’s generation, computers and electronic devices are used and utilized in every walk of life. The history of computers is hundreds of years ago before calculations were performed using an abacus. The development of the computer has made a remarkable change in the overall computer and IT industry. This development of computers can be classified into generations of computers according to their features, characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and the hardware they are equipped with. The computer can easily handle complex calculations and obtain the output within a few clicks.

  • First Generation Computer (1946-1956)
  • Second Generation Computer (1956-1964)
  • Third Generation Computer (1964-1971)
  • Fourth Generation Computer (1971-1985)
  • Fifth Generation Computer (1985-Present)

What is the Second Generation of Computer Systems?

The computer generations can be classified according to their timeline and hardware and software functionality development.

Till now, five generations of computers are categorized according to their size and processing power.

The timeline of the second-generation falls between [1956 – 1963]. They used and utilized transistors in their hardware instead of enormous vacuum tubes, which was used in the first generation of computer.

The vacuum tubes increased in size and generated a tremendous amount of heat and energy compared to the second generation of computers.

Transistors eventually decreased the size of computers, making them highly portable, installed in small spaces, and easily transferred from one location to another.

The transistor was designed and developed by Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and William Shockley on December 23, 1947. 

The development of the transistor revolutionized the field of computers.

These transistors were tiny in size, reliable, and used extensively. The speed of computers increased dramatically when used transistors.

These 2nd generations of computers used high-level languages like COBOL and FORTRAN and also were capable of accessing batch programming and multi-programming operating system.

Second Generations of computers were used as a part of the industry of nuclear energy, and their examples are

What is the Third Generation of Computer Systems

The timeline of the 3rd generation of computers is between 1964 to 1971.

In this generation of computers, Integrated Circuit [ICs] were used instead of transistors, eventually increasing the overall functionality and performance of the computer system.

The development of the 3rd generation of computers was far more advanced compared to the second generation of the computer system.

Third Generation Computers Systems
Third Generation Computers Systems
The Integrated Circuit was invented by Jack Kilby, an electrical engineer from Texas Instrument Company, on September 12, 1958.

The invention of IC was a stepping stone toward the further development of the computer system.

The ICs made computer systems more compact in shape and size; also, they were comparatively faster than the second generation of computers.

Due to enhanced speed and design, they became more popular, which increased their efficiency and reliability.

3rd generation computers were easy to maintain and produced less heat and energy.

This generation of computers extensively used operating systems also utilized high-level programming languages like COBOL and FORTRAN.

The ICs are extensively used and utilized in all modern electronic devices due to their higher efficiency rate with more advanced and powerful performance.

These ICs have overall enhanced the performance of electronic devices and computer systems.

Integrated Circuit [IC] can be programmed in a unique way to derive necessary results.

Differences Between Second Generation and Third Generation Computer With Image

Differences Between Second Generation and Third Generation Computer

Differences Between Second Generation and Third Generation Computer

#2nd Generation Computers3rd Generation Computers
11956 – 1963 [Timeline].1964 to 1971 [Timeline].
2Used Transistors.Used Integrated Circuit.
3The transistor was designed and developed by Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and William Shockley.The Integrated Circuit was invented by Jack Kilby.
4They were huge in size.They are compact in shape and size.
5Needed huge space for installation.Requried less space for installation compared to second generation of computers.
6Generated heat and energy.Less amount of heat was generated.
7They are expensive machines.They are comparitively cheaper.
8Used punch cards for input and outputs.Keyboards and monitors were used for input and output.
9Less storage capacity.More advanced storage capacity.
10Slower Computers.Faster operating computers than second generation of computers.
11Fortran and Cobol languages are used.Multitasking and multiprogramming machines

Features and Characteristics of Second Generation of Computer

  • The second generation of the computer used and utilized transistors instead of substantial vacuum tubes in their circuitry.
  • They are equipped to handle high-level programming languages like COBOL and FORTRAN.
  • They use assembly language.
  • They are more reliable and user-friendly than the first generation of computers.
  • They consume less heat and energy.
  • They are faster machines compared to 1st generation of computers.
  • Magnetic tapes and disks were used as secondary storage devices. They Use punch cards for inputs and printouts for outputs.
  • They are equipped with faster processing and handling time.
  • They can connect with other computers and devices.
  • They are portable
  • They consume less amount of energy.
  • They are more compact and can be fitted or installed in small spaces.
Characteristics and Features of Second Generations of Computer System
Characteristics and Features of Second Generations of Computer System

Features and Characteristics of Third Generations of Computer

  • The third generation of computers used and utilized ICs [Integrated Circuit] in their circuitry for better and enhanced performance.
  • They are more reliable compared to second-generation computer systems.
  • They are compact and hence can be installed in small spaces.
  • VLSI {Very Large Scale Integration} and ULSI {Ultra Large Scale Integration} chips were used to develop compact designs.
  • They can perform multiprogramming and multitasking.
  • High-Level Programming languages were used like FORTRAN and COBOL.
  • They produce less heat and energy compared to other generations of computers.
  • They are portable devices and can be shifted from one place to another.
  • 3rd generations of computers are manufactured to achieve desired results.
  • They are much faster than the second generation of computers.
  • They used keyboards and monitors as input and output devices.
Features of 3rd Generation of Computers
Features of 3rd Generation of Computers

Advantages and Disadvantages of Second Generation of Computer

AdvantagesDisadvantages
They used transistors that are more advanced than huge vacuum tubes.Second Generations of computers are expensive and require maintenance.
They require less energy compared to the first generation of computers.They produce heat; therefore air conditioner is required.
They generate less heat.They are comparatively slower than 2nd and 3rd generations’ computers.
The Second-generation computer uses magnetic tapes and magnetic drums for data and information storage.They are not capable of performing multitasking with rapid speed.
They are faster and more reliable computers compared to previous computer generations.Due to heat, the hardware device is likely to get damaged.
They are capable of handling more complex tasks and operations.Input and output devices like punch cards were very slow to operate.
They use high-level programming languages.They are designed and developed for specific tasks and operations.
The use of operating systems can be seen in these devices.They used magnetic drums and magnetic tapes, which restricted the storage space.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Third Generation of Computer

AdvantagesDisadvantages
The third generation of computer systems used and utilized Integrated Circuit instead of huge vacuum tubes and transistors.The design and architecture are very complex.
The transistors made these computers compact in shape and size.They are costly.
Due to their compact design, they were highly portable and could be shifted from one location to another.They are not considered a home or personal computers.
They are less expensive compared to the 1st and 2nd generation of computers.The Integrated Circuit is a sophisticated technology.
They consumed less electricity.Skilled professionals are required for maintenance
They generated less heat and energy.The components and devices are expensive.
They are multitasking and multiprogramming machines.The devices used in a third-generation computer cannot be repaired quickly.
They are reliable and efficient.They are designed and developed for specific tasks and operations.

Examples of Second (2nd) Generation of Computer

  • IBM
  • UNIVAC 1108
  • Honeywell 400
  • CDC 1604
  • CDC 3600
  • PDP1
  • PDP3
  • PDP5
  • PDP8
  • ALTAS
  • LEO
  • PDP (Programmed Data Processor).
Examples of Second Generation Computer
Examples of Second Generation Computer

Examples of Third (3nd) Generation of Computer

  • IBM-360 Series
  • Honeywell – 6000 series
  • PDP (Personal Data Processor)
  • IBM-370/168
  • TDC-316
  • UNIVAC 1108
  • ICE
  • PDP-8
  • PDP-5
  • PDP-1
  • Barose-5700/6700/7700
Examples of Third Generations Computer System
Examples of Third Generations Computer System

Five Generations of Computers

  • First Generation of Computer (1940-1956)
  • Second Generation of Computers(1956-1963)
  • Third Generation of Computers(1964-1971)
  • Fourth Generations of Computers:: ( 1971-To 2000)
  • Fifth Generations of Computers (Present and Beyond)
Five Generations of Computer System
Five Generations of Computer System

All Generations of Computer Systems [1st to 5th]

#Computer GenerationsTimelineHardware
1First Generation of Computer1940-1956Vaccum Tubes
2Second Generation of Computer1956-1963Transistor
3Third Generation of Computer1964-1971Integrated Circuit (I.C.)
4Fourth Generation of Computer1971-1980Microprocessor
5Fifth Generation of Computer1980- Till NowArtificial Intelligence

Difference Between 2nd & 3rd Generation of Computer

Related Articles

Frequently Asked Questions [FAQs]

Which language Did Second (2nd) Generation of Computer Used?

Assembly or assembler languages were used in 2nd generation of computer

Which language Did Third Generation of Computer Used?

BASIC, COBOL, Pascal, Fortran, C, C++, Perl and Ada.

Second (2nd) Generation of Computer Year?

1959-1965

Third (3rd) Generation of Computer Year ?

1964 to 1971,

Third Generation of Computer was Based on Which Technology

Integrated Circuit [IC]

Second Generation of Computer was Based on Which Technology

Transistors

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