10 Advantages and Disadvantages of IGBT | Benefits and Drawbacks of IGBT

Introduction

Today’s post will learn the Advantages and Disadvantages of IGBT | Benefits and Drawbacks of IGBT with meaning, definition, applications and types with images and diagrams.

The Full Form of IGBT is Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor.

What is IGBT and How it Works

The IGBT stands for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. 

The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor is a bipolar transistor that includes an insulated gate terminal.

The IGBT is included in a single chip or device. This contains a control input and a MOS structure with a bipolar power transistor that behaves like an output switch.

The main objective or purpose of IGBT is working with high voltages and in an application where high voltages are used.

The inductive cooktops are included in applications of IGBT.

There are various types of power semiconductor switches, and among these switches, Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is also one, which combines some of the characteristics of BJT, MOSFET and thruster.

Its terminals are called a gate, collector and emitter. In another version, they are designated as Gate, Drain and Source.

Advantages and Disadvantages of IGBT | Benefits and Drawbacks of IGBT With Diagram

Advantages and Disadvantages of IGBT
Advantages and Disadvantages of IGBT

Benefits and Advantages of IGBT {Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor} in Points

  • They are relatively easy to operate and simple to turn off and on
  • They are inexpensive.
  • They are voltage-controlled devices.
  • The driver circuit is elementary to operate
  • They are low on-state voltage drop and low on-state power dissipation
  • Switching Frequency higher compared to power BJT.
  • No need for a snubber circuit for extra protection.
  • IGBTs are flat temperature coefficients of resistivity. 
  • It consists of a high impedance gate in the case of MOSFET.
  • Works at a low ON-OFF voltage in case of BJT is near IGBT.
  • It can prevent negative voltage in the case of GTO.
  • The snubber circuit requirement is relatively smaller.
  • The requirement of a low gate drive is observed.

Drawbacks and Disadvantages of IGBT in Points

  • It has an asymmetric blocking capacity. It cannot block high reverse voltages.
  • The switching frequency is not as high as that of a power MOSFET.
  • The problem of latch UPS.
  • Excessive power dissipation can occur at the time of turn-off due to the “current tail” present in the turn-off characteristics.
  • They are pretty expensive.
  • The speed of the switching is lower to a power MOSFET and higher to a BJT.

Different Types of IGBT

The different types of Insulated Gate Bipolar transistors are divided into two types
  • Non Punch Through IGBT [NPT- IGBT].
  • Punch Through IGBT [PT-IGBT].

When IGBTs consists of an n+ buffer layer called “PT-IGBT”, on the other hand, IGBTs created without this layer is known as Non-Punch Through- IGBT {NPT-IGBT}.

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Applications of IGBT {Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor} in Points.

  • IGBTs are widely used in medium power applications such as DC and AC motor drives, UPS systems, power supplies, solenoids, and relays. 
  • Although IGBTs tend to be somewhat more expensive than BJTs, they are becoming popular due to lower gate-drive requirements, lower switching losses and smaller snubber circuit requirements.
  • IGBT converters are smaller and cheaper than BJT converters.
  • Switching mode power supplies (SMPS).
  • UPS systems (IGBT based inverters).
  • AC motor controllers.
  • Inverters.

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