What is Operating System and Its Different Types?

What is operating system and its types?
An operating system is commonly abbreviated as OS. The operating system is also called as system software or system program which directly interacts with computer hardware devices along with computer programs. The operating system is an important and integral part of a computer system and if not found the computer system becomes useless.

Almost all modern day OS is possessed with GUI interface [Graphical user interface] before some years users used a computer with non-GUI based operating system such as MS-DOS. In Dos, users need to type certain dos commands to derive the required result. To use this type of operating system or system software or system program users need to be aware of some basic dos commands which made them harder to learn and execute.

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There are 2 types of dos commands

  • Internal dos commands
  • External dos commands

There is a long list of dos commands which has to be memorized before starting to use MS-DOS operating system. Operating systems are developed by software companies like Microsoft, apple and so on. They are designed and developed in such a way that they control all the hardware components of computer system. Computer Application software executes with the help of OS. They also monitor and co-ordinates with CPU, primary and secondary storage devices of computer and also communicate with other computer peripherals devices such as printers, scanners etc

They also interact with devices drives so that you can hear sound and view images and pictures in high definition. They are primarily responsible for transferring the data to computer storage devices. The operating system also acts like an interface between user and computers they have language processor which are responsible for converting assembly language or high-level languages to machine language with the help of compilers and interpreters which are the examples of language processors.

  • Machine language is a language which is easily understood by computers.
  • Famous Operating System:: Microsoft:: Windows XP – Windows 7- Windows 8 –Windows 10 & 10.1
  • Apple:: MacOS
  • Google:: Android and Chromium
  • IOS operating system is commonly used with apple iphones and ipads.
  • Famous open source operating systems are Linux and Ubuntu is its variant.

What is Application Software?
Now as we have discussed on what is operating system we must be aware or familiar with application software. Application software’s are nothing but a set of a program which is designed, developed and compiled for users to use the program for special and specific operations. Let me explain you in detail when you go to a computer hardware shop and buy a new computer the first thing the computer technician do is to install an operating system on your brand new computer as it is explained above that OS is the primary and the most important software your computer must have to run.

And later application software are installed such as ms-office, tally, vlc player, Photoshop and so on these are the software which helps you to interact with the computer and obtain desired results. Application software is installed on the specific request of the computer owner. Some of the application programs are inbuilt in an operating system such as paint, WordPad, Windows media player, and Notepad.

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User Written software or customized software:
This software is designed and coded when a user request or demands for it. Let us have a clearer picture what I am saying. Application software is developed in a development environment and with use of high-level programming languages such as visual basic and database language like SQL server.

A software developer or software engineers develop certain software using high-level language which is easily updated and can be changed whenever user request. These software’s which are developed can be changed, removed or updated whenever found necessary. Imagine you are running a company with hundreds of employees working for you and you want to maintain and save a complete record of them starting from the joining date to their salary. In the scenario, if you perform this task manually it will be tedious and time-consuming.

In this scenario you will be prompted to develop a customized software which can handle this sort of operations within a fraction of the time, even this software can calculate salaries of employees with deductions keeping in mind of government taxes. This type of customized software eventually leads to time and money saving.

Different Types of Operating System?

  • Simple Batch System
  • Multiprocessor System
  • Multiprogramming Batch System
  • Distributed Operating System
  • Real-Time Operating System

Simple Batch System ::
This is the oldest system in the history of the operating system. Where there was no direct interaction with the user and computer system. In this system users task, job or operation has to be processed with the help of any storage medium and must be submitted to computer operator for further processing.

In this system, many jobs or task were submitted in a form of a batch or in a line to the computer system.This was a tedious and time-consuming process where each task could take days or even months for processing and later this obtained output would be stored in output devices.

This was first come first serve process the job which is submitted first would be processed first and hence user has to wait for an entire process to complete which was very time consuming and frustrating. Therefore this system was called a batch mode operating system.

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Multiprocessor System::
Microprocessor system uses many processors in a single time with a common physical memory. The computing power of this system was very fast as compared to the simple batch system. Each and every processor inside this system used a single operating system and work inside the operating system.

This system was enormously fast the reason behind that was they used multiprocessor for their operations. In this system task or jobs were divided into sub task or sub-jobs where each task or job was handled by the separate and individual processor which made the task to complete more faster and more accurate.

Multi-Programming Batch System::
In this operating system, the processor is never idle the main reason behind this is when a job or task is presented to the computer system it is picked up from its memory and the OS executes this task. When the OS has multiple jobs presented to them if the first process the first job which is presented to them and if it requires input or output to them and the second job is presented to CPU for further processing, therefore, the CPU is always busy in performing some or other task given to them.

Therefore the size of the job is always less in memory as compared to jobs which are on the disk. The Operating system decides and controls over which task to be performed first and sequentially operations are performed. Time-sharing system is also a part of multi Programming where response time is much faster as compared to other system and the usage of CPU is more.

Distributed Operating System::
As the huge development and the advancement in the computer technology distributed operating system is developed which are quite cheaper and use more advanced and powerful CPU’s.

With the help of distributed OS, we can easily connect computer which is far away and was not easily connected to each other. As the loading of such operating system is distributed their processing is faster and the resources are easily accessible for use. This distributed operating system can handle multiple operations and multiple users in a single time as their resources are distributed and divided along. The Distributed Operating system is used in hosting websites where processors are responsible for speed and better functionality.

Real-Time Operating System::
A real-time operating system is the fastest and more advanced OS where real-time processing of data and information is performed. In this system when an input is presented to OS the time required to process the input and present the output to the user is called as response time.
In this type of system the response time is very less and hence the output obtained by using this system is fast as compared to another system. Real-Time Operating System is used in space research, space engineering, missile launch, railway ticket booking etc where even a fraction of a second matter.

  • Hard Real-Time Operating System
  • Soft Real-Time Operating System

Hard Real-Time Operating System::
In this system, the work or job presented to them is almost done with perfection and in record time. These systems don’t have external storage devices and hence they usually access data using ROM [Read Only Memory].

Soft Real-Time Operating System:: In simple words, these system doesn’t work on particular time and don’t complete given task or operation on given time. This system never works on first come first serve basis if a task is been processed in the system and suddenly a new task appears it gives priority to a new task or job.

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Complete List of Famous Operating System of All Time

Below I have mentioned some of the famous desktop OS have a look.

  • Microsoft Disk Operating System [MS-DOS]
  • Windows CE
  • Windows 95
  • Windows 98
  • Windows 98 Second Edition
  • Windows ME
  • Windows NT
  • Windows 2000
  • Windows XP
  • Windows XP SP2
  • Windows 7
  • Windows 8
  • Windows 8.1
  • Windows 10
  • Windows 10.1
  • Linux
  • Unix
  • Mac OS
  • IBM OS 2

As there are OS for desktop and laptop computer there are operating sytem for all mobile devices below i have mentioned a few of them have a look.

Operating System for Mobile Devices

  • Andriod OS
  • Blackberry
  • IOS
  • Meego OS
  • Palm OS
  • Symbian OS

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Functions of Operating System

Due to the vast development of new and upgraded operating systems [OS] their functions and working style has been changed and updated considerably. But here in this section, we will take a look at basic and main functions of an operating system. There are various functions an operating system performs like when a computer is booted normally it loads itself in the main memory that is commonly called as RAM [Random Access Memory] later it decides which hardware are necessary for handling and processing certain user software which later is loaded in the system sequentially.

The Operating system provides an interface or an environment between a user and computer, in other words, it provides a platform where the user can easily use a computer and derived or obtained required result.

  • Memory Management
  • Processor Management
  • Device Management
  • File Management
  • Security
  • Detect Error [Both Hardware and Software]
  • Heart of Computer

Memory Management::
To handle or manage primary and secondary memory is called or commonly known as memory management. Ram [Random Access Memory] is called as main memory and computer hard disk drives and USB pen drives are the example of secondary memory. The systems main memory [RAM] is the fastest memory as compared to secondary memory where main memory is volatile in nature and secondary memory is non-volatile.

In main memory data or information sent to them are stored or arranged in a form of arrays where data is formed and arranged in bytes. All the information and data stored in main memory has a particular address assigned to them. The computer processor or CPU directly interacts and co-ordinates with the main memory as all the important programs and applications are stored in main memory.

Memory management of operating system decides which part of main memory should be used and access whereas which part of main memory should not be used and access and in what proportion. When a task, job or operation is given to computer system it requires memory which is arranged by OS and later when the task or process is finished the OS takes back its memory.

Process Management (Processor Scheduling)
In the multiprogramming environment, the operating system decides controls and take action over the process and which process requires the processor to complete the action or task in given time. The operating system control and coordinate with the processor and also look for the process of task completion given to it.

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Device Management::
If you are familiar with the computer you may have heard a term called “DRIVERS”. Drivers are nothing but system software which enables computer hardware to run and function properly. Imagine you have installed a sound card or graphics card on your computer to hear sound or view images and pictures in high resolution you will be prompted to install drivers for that piece of hardware.

Need not to worry every hardware device comes with an installation disc which is driver software. If you have accidentally misplaced or damaged your installation disc you can download software from the manufacturer website. The Operating system [OS] is primarily responsible for running and executing these drivers.

The OS has multiple tasks to do in a given single time like it would play music in one tab and run excel sheets or another tab and while performing these operations it does printing of some documents.Therefore the OS is multitasking to handle different input and output operations at a single time.

File Management::
For easy navigation and access the files are organized inside a directory. A directory may contain files as well as directory for better functionality and better usability. An Operating system keeps all the records such as location and uses this feature is commonly known as the file system.

Security::
Modern day operating system has the features to enable or disable password protection which enhances the use of computer system and provide the system from unauthorized use and access. This features help in securing our useful and highly sensitive records such as credit card information and all personal information from hackers and crackers.

There are numerous programs and software which can be used and access with the help of correct password and hence system determine the authentication of user.

Detect Error [Both Hardware and Software]::
The operating system can diagnose both hardware and software malfunction and present user correct issue arises while loading certain programs and applications not only they determine a problem they also deliver some solution to help you rectify the problem. In this case, people with good computer skills can trace the problem and find a perfect and appropriate solution to resolve the issue. In some cases, OS can recover the problem on its own. According to me this is one of the most important features of operating system which has been developed recently.

Heart of Computer::
As we have discussed before that operating system acts like an environment where user and computer interacts with each other now if any system where OS is found missing it refuse to load with all its functions. And as we all know that all the application software can be run or executed with the help of system software that is our own operating system the computer system becomes useless.

In the above article we have discussed briefly on the What is Operating System it types and functions.If you like our article please send us your suggestions and feedback also don't forget to like and share