What is Motherboard | Definition Uses and Functions

A Computer Motherboard is commonly known as Main board or MB or System board or logic board is designed on PCB (Printed Circuit Board).That holds or connects all components and parts together on a single sheet. The Computer Motherboard holds all the circuitry to connect the various components of a computer system. Therefore it is also called as backbone of Personal computer system.

The Main board or Motherboard is the main, cruical and important part of the computer system. It holds many important components such as Computer memory slots,cpu,sata IDE slots, expansions slots(PCI,AGP etc),capacitor’s, resistor’s ,BIOS chip etc The Computer main board is made up of thin sheet of non conductive material from plastic .The traces which are present on the motherboard is made up of copper/aluminum foil.

There are many companies which manufacture excellent quality of logic boards these day's such as Intel, Asus, Gigabyte, Msi, Asrock, Sapphire technology, Biostar etc

Computer Motherboard Label Diagram

Motherboard Label Diagram-What is a MotherboardPC Motherboard Label Diagram

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Components and Parts Used in Computer Motherboard

There are various component embedded in MB/PCB(Printed Circuit Board).You should know the basic computer functionality and uses of the various component attached to main board to use it and installed in Computer case.

Today Computer Motherboards comes in number of variety but the basic functionality and uses are pretty much the same? You must be familiar with the use and aware of the basic architecture of PC and Laptop motherboard design

As it is difficult to understand each and every part of MB still you should be aware of some common and important component & parts attached to it.

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List of component of PC Motherboard

  • Expansion slots (PCI Express, PCI, and AGP)
  • 3-pin case fan connectors
  • Back panel connectors
  • Heat sink
  • 4-Pin (P4) power connector
  • CPU Socket
  • Screw hole
  • Memory slot
  • Floppy connection
  • ATA (IDE) disk drive primary connection
  • 24-pin ATX power Supply connector
  • Serial ATA connections
  • Coin cell battery (CMOS backup battery)
  • System panel connectors
  • Serial port connector
  • USB headers
  • Jumpers
  • SPDIF
  • Game port and MIDI header
  • Internal speaker
  • Keyboard controller
  • Parallel port header
  • PS/2 header

PC Motherboard Component and Their Features

PS2 Mouse Port
PS2 Mouse Port
  • Ps/2 Mouse Connector
  • Circular In Shape
  • 6 Pins
  • Female Type of Connector
  • Usually Green In colour
PS2 Keyboard Port
PS2 Keyboard
  • Ps/2 Keyboard Connector
  • Circular In Shape
  • 6 Pins
  • Female Type Of Connector
  • Usually Voilet In Colour
Serial Port
Serial Port
  • Serial / Normal Mouse Connector
  • D-Shape Connector
  • 9 Pins
  • Male Type Connector
Display PortVGA Port
  • Display /VGA Port
  • D -Type Of Connector
  • 15 Pins
  • Female Type Of Connector
  • Usually Blue In Colour
USB PortUSB Port
  • USB Stands For Universal Serial Bus
  • You can Connect any USB Devices to this connecot
  • Ex: Pendrive,Scanner,Printer,Cardreader
  • Motherboard may contain more than 2 Usb Slot
Lan Port
Lan Port
  • Used to Acces Internet
  • RJ45 Patch cable Is connected
  • Used for Networking
Sound PortSound Port
  • There Are 3 Slots mainly in Sound port
  • 1st Is Light Blue (Input Audio)
  • Middle is Light Green ( Output Audio)
  • Last One is Light Pink( Mike)
Printer PortPrinter Port
  • Parallel Port(Lpt1,Line Printer,Printer Port)
  • Serial-Printer are Connected to this port
  • 25 pin
  • Female-type connector
  • D-Shape Connector
CPU SocketProcessor Slot • This is cpu socket where processor is Installed. Memory Slot (RAM)Memory Slot (RAM)
  • Ram is connected to this Slot
  • Slot's are mainly named as (DIMM,SIMM)
  • DIMM stands for(Dual in line memory moudle)
  • SIMM (Single in line memory module)
SATA PostSATA Port • SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)

•You can attached Sata (Hard disk ) ,Sata (DvD -Rw) ..

Floppy Disk PortFloppy Disk Port
  • Floppy Disk Drive is out of date, nobody uses this device nowadays
  • 34 pin
  • Male Connector
IDE ConnectorIDE Connector
  • IDE(Integrated Device Electronics)
  • 40 pins connector
SMPS-Power ConnectorSMPS-Power Connector
  • There are 3 type of smps power connector (12 Pins,20 Pins ,24 Pins)
  • SMPS Power Supply is connected here
  • It's gives desired voltages to motherboard converts Ac volt into Dc
CMOS Battery ConnectorCMOS Battery Connector • Here Cmos battery is Inserted AGP SlotAGP Slot
  • AGP (Advanced Graphic Port)
  • Graphic card is connected in this slot
PCI SlotPCI Slot
  • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
  • You can connect display card,sound card ,lan card to this slot
System fan SlotSystem fan Slot • Processor fan is connected here
CMOS-Clear JumperCMOS-Clear Jumper • This jumper is used to clear all Bios setting ... Front USBFront USB
  • Ground +,Ground -
  • DT+ ,DT+
  • DT-, DT-
  • VCC+,VCC-
Front PanelFront Panel
  • Power Switch
  • Reset Switch
  • Hdd Led
  • Power led
Front PanelFront Panel
  • Power Switch
  • Reset Switch
  • Hdd Led
  • Power led
Front USBFront USB
  • Ground +,Ground -
  • DT+ ,DT+
  • DT-, DT-
  • VCC+,VCC-
Front AudioFront Audio • You Can Insert Your Audio Pin In front side of computer case to hear sound

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Complete Description of Computer Motherboard

The desktop or PC motherboard is mounted inside the computer case with the help of small screws which are used to tighten the system board into the computer case.The computer case possess some pre-drilled holes so that the screws can be easily fit into it.

System or Main board consist of a single CPU socket which is pre-soldered into it. There are various types of CPU socket which are used to determine the computer motherboard and the CPU which is compatible with it.

You can determine which processor is compatible or suited to the motherboard as there is a number printed on the CPU socket which determines which CPU to be installed on it. There are memory slots commonly called as DIMM or SIMM which allow users to install memory (RAM) into it. Number of memory slots depends entirely upon the manufacturer of motherboard.

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Expansion slots are used in motherboard so that you can install additional video cards, sound cards, and graphic cards into it. These expansion slots are pre-install.
Some of the expansion slots are :: PCI,AGP,ISA etc

Front panel connectors on motherboards has a Power switch, Reset, Power led, HDD led connectors which are connected by wires.

Jumpers are used for specific purposes such as CMOS clear jumper is used to reset bios password.

On the left side of the motherboard, there are number of ports which are used to connect to other peripherals of computer system such as monitors, USB drives, printers, keyboard, mouse,LAN , modem etc

There is a small coin-shaped cell commonly called as CMOS battery which is inserted into a battery connector present in the motherboard.

SATA and IDE slots are available to connect to other devices such as hard drives and DVD-RW with the help of cables. 24 pins power connector is available to connect power supply(SMPS) and additional 4 pin p4 power connector is also available.

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